According to bank documents:
The knowledge and support technical assistance (TA) will help Cambodia, Indonesia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), the Philippines, Thailand, Timor-Leste, and Viet Nam to integrate a gender and social inclusion dimension in national climate and green transformation policies, programs, and plans, including Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) under the Paris Agreement, and to develop options for a gender and socially inclusive green recovery following the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Gender and socially inclusive green recovery envisages transformation towards a climate-resilient and nature-driven future with emphasis on gender and social inclusion to maximize outcomes for both people and the environment. The TA will build capacity of the relevant government agencies through policy dialogue, case studies, and knowledge products; and by strengthening coordination and knowledge sharing in the Southeast Asia region and beyond.
The TA is aligned with regional and national commitments to gender equality and sustainable development, including the ASEAN Gender Mainstreaming Strategic Framework 2021-2025, which calls for enhancing Member States' capacities for gender analyses to inform the design and implementation of policies, plans, and programs; the 2020 Enhanced Lima Work Programme on gender and its gender action plan under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Comprehensive Recovery Framework, which highlights the need for rapid digital and sustainability transformation in Southeast Asia. The TA is aligned with national gender equality policies of, and ADB's country partnership strategies for all participating developing member countries (DMCs), particularly with achieving inclusive and environmentally sustainable development, promoting women's economic empowerment, and advocating for women's participation in decision-making. The TA will support the following operational priorities (OP) of ADB's Strategy 2030: addressing poverty and reducing inequalities (OP 1), accelerating progress in gender equality (OP 2), tackling climate change (OP 3), strengthening governance and institutional capacity (OP 6), and fostering regional cooperation and integration (OP 7).
PROJECT RATIONALE AND LINKAGE TO COUNTRY/REGIONAL STRATEGY
The COVID-19 pandemic affected men, women, and vulnerable populations differently because of structural inequalities within societies. Women were particularly impacted, especially in their roles as health care workers, caregivers, and entrepreneurs. While countries in Southeast Asia had been making headway on gender equality, particularly on education and health, the pandemic has reverted such progress, and the 2022 Gender Gap Index indicates that it will take another 168 years to close gender gaps in the region. Persistent gender gaps are particularly acute in lower rates of female labor force participation, occupational segregation and wage gap, political representation, and lower rates of graduates in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields, and a gender digital divide.
Climate change and environmental degradation are likely to further exacerbate gender gaps and social inequalities. The vulnerability of marginalized populations will increase with impacts compounded by intersecting dimensions related to gender, ethnicity, age, class, and disability, among others. At the COP25 in 2020, Parties to the UNFCCC agreed to enhance knowledge of gender-responsive climate action and to mainstream gender in the implementation of the Paris Agreement through gender-responsive climate policies, plans, strategies, and action in NDCs, national adaptation plans (NAPs), national communications, and long-term low-emission development strategies; and to report progress at COP 29 in 2024. Furthermore, the focus on a just transition, which refers to a green transformation of the economy that is as fair and socially inclusive, and creates decent work and opportunities, is gaining momentum to promote social and economic benefits for all, particularly the most vulnerable people in society. Southeast Asian DMCs have started to consider gender equality and social inclusion aspects in climate and environmental policies, but the systematic development and implementation of climate and environmental policy frameworks that includes these dimensions is needed for real impact.
The lack of regional and country-level data and deeper understanding on the nexus between gender and social dimensions in climate and environmental action remain important challenges. Data is lacking for key sectors such as energy, transportation, urban infrastructure among others. We know for example, that globally, men are transitioning into green jobs faster than women, accounting for 66% of green job transitions between 2015 and 2021 (IFC, Exploring the Opportunities for Women-Owned Enterprises in Cambodia, 2019). Furthermore, in the renewable energy sector, women hold 32% of the jobs, mostly in administrative or clerical positions, and 25% of management positions (LinkedIn, Global Green Skills Report 2022). But specific data for Southeast Asia is lacking, limiting policy making. Therefore, there is a need for developing of country-specific and region-wide knowledge on these topics. Knowledge sharing opportunities, particularly in the context of ASEAN, and with governments, civil society, and the private sector, can also enhance policy dialogue and strengthen regional cooperation.
The green economy affords great potential for innovation and entrepreneurship. A green recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic in Southeast Asia has the potential to create $172 billion in investment opportunities annually and generate more than 30 million jobs by 2030. Women entrepreneurs in Southeast Asia can help delivery on this potential; in Cambodia alone, women own 62% of microenterprises and 26% of SMEs (ADB, Implementing a Green Recovery in Southeast Asia, 2022). However, women entrepreneurs continue to struggle with formalization, growth, productivity, profitability, financing, and digitalization; and are yet to adopt sustainability principles in their business models and operations. Furthermore, countries in Southeast Asia lack strategic frameworks to support MSMEs in their transformation toward greener and digital enterprises. Policy frameworks and capacity development opportunities are needed to enable women entrepreneurs access know-how, green finance, and to transition in line with the green economy requirements.
The TA is aligned with the following impacts: Increasing capacity, knowledge management, and sharing of experience for designing and implementing gender-responsive climate action for increased impact, and advancing towards a sustainable and resilient future.
ADB will engage consultants following the ADB Procurement Policy (2017, as amended from time to time) and its associated staff instructions. A firm will be selected to develop the framework, guidelines, and toolkits for integrating gender and social consideration in the Energy Transition Mechanism (ETM). International and national consultants and resource persons will be engaged for the development of strategies, action plans, and mechanisms to monitor and report on commitments under UNFCCC's enhanced Lima Work Programme and its gender action plan, for policy review and for the preparation of knowledge products.
1. Package title: Energy Transition Mechanism and Gender Equality and Social Inclusion (ETM GESI) Framework, toolkits, and regional study (Firm); SCQS selection; Engaged by ADB
2. Package title: International gender equality, social inclusion, climate change, and sustainable business expert (Individual); Individual selection; Engaged by ADB
3. Package title: International Graphic Facilitation Expert (Individual); Individual selection; Engaged by ADB
4. Package: International M&E; Expert and Coordinator (Individual); Individual selection; Engaged by ADB
5. Package: National gender equality, social inclusion, and climate change expert (Individual); Individual selection; Engaged by ADB
6. International resource persons (Individual); Individual selection; Engaged by ADB
ADB will engage national vendors through direct contracting under multiple contracts as part of non-consulting services for undertaking of surveys, following the ADB Procurement Policy (2017, as amended from time to time) and its associated staff instructions.
Mendizabal Joffre, Veronica
Southeast Asia Department
Project contacts not available at the time of disclosure.
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