According to ADB documents, The flagship 5-year Swachh Bharat (Clean India) Mission-Urban 2.0 (SBM-U 2.0) of the Government of India was launched in 2021, committing to making all cities “garbage-free cities” (GFCs) by 2026, 1 while maintaining open-defecation free (ODF) status across 4,372 urban local bodies (ULBs).The results-based lending (RBL) program of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a geographic, time- and scope-based slice of the government’s program, covering an estimated 100 cities across eight states. The RBL program will enhance municipal sanitation and solid waste management (SWM) infrastructure, improve access and service delivery, and bolster the enabling environment for sustainable waste management. It aims to boost the performance of target states in comprehensive waste management, drawing on ADB's experience, lessons, and previous engagements in the sector of water and other urban infrastructure and services.
The RBL program impacts will be healthy citizens living in resilient, garbage-free cities with clean air, clean water, and clean, and emissions intensity reduced by 45% from 2005 levels, by 2030. 4 The outcome—improved performance of target states in comprehensive waste management—will be measured by at least 100 ULBs in the target states achieving a GFC 3-star rating or higher, and achieving ODF+ status. 5 The disbursement-linked indicators (DLI) are aligned with those of the broader government program. The outcome will be achieved through the following two outputs: (i) sanitation and SWM infrastructure, access, and service delivery improved; and (ii) enabling environment for sustainable waste management strengthened.
The program implementation arrangements will follow those of the government-owned program. MOHUA is the executing agency responsible for the overall coordination of the program, while the National Mission Directorate in MOHUA is the implementing agency and will supervise and monitor program implementation. MOHUA is supported by a team of 20 PMU staff. MOHUA engages with states through quarterly review forums and provides technical inputs and analysis routinely as the nodal entity. The state mission directorates are supported by dedicated PMUs. ULBs’ municipal commissioners (executive officers) are responsible for implementing SBM-U 2.0 locally. ADB will conduct regular reviews during the implementation of the RBL program.
Due diligence conducted during the program safeguard systems assessment (PSSA) in sample states of Assam and Tamil Nadu indicates that poorly designed, constructed, and/or operated SWM facilities may have impacts that include (i) land, groundwater and/or surface water pollution from contaminated surface runoff and leachate generated from SWM facilities; (ii) dust and air emissions including sulfides, odors, among others from landfills, processing plants among others, litter and aesthetic impacts; (iii) rodents, pests, vectors, bird menace, and health hazards; (iv) risk of fires; (v) occupational and community health and safety risks; and (vi) noise and vibration. Location of facilities further influences the significance of these impacts.
RBL program will exclude activities likely to entail land acquisition, physical displacement and/or permanent economic impacts to any individual, household, or community. Government lands will be used. Screening of projects for associated social safeguard risks and impacts (including those to squatters and other non-titleholders) will be conducted to ensure that exclusion criteria are met.
Assessment of sample projects proposed and/or sanctioned under Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban (SBM 2.0) indicate that the projects do not involve land acquisition and related resettlement impacts.Limited resettlement impacts such as temporary economic impacts to rag pickers and waste collectors, impacts to informal users and/or lessees of government land as playgrounds and for cropping are anticipated during project implementation and/or civil work. The program through the ULBs will ensure that the waste collectors who are likely to face temporary economic impacts continue to have access to waste during project implementation. ULBs will develop a system to organize and engage with informal waste collectors and facilitate their participation in waste management services and operation of project facilities.
The overall RBL program expenditure from 2023 to 2026 is $400 million. The government requested a loan of $200 million from ADB’s ordinary capital resources while providing the rest of the program’s financing itself.
The TA financing amount is $3.15 million, of which (i) $2.00 million (for output 1) will be financed on a grant basis by the Urban Resilience Trust Fund (URTF) under the Urban Financing Partnership Facility;10 (ii) $1.00 million (for output 2) will be financed on a grant basis by the Republic of Korea e-Asia and Knowledge Partnership Fund (EAKPF) and administered by ADB and (iii) $0.15 million (for output 3) will be financed by the Sanitation Financing Partnership Trust Fund (SFPTF) under the Water Financing Partnership Facility (WFPF).
|Responsible ADB Officer
|Kohlhase, Jude Ernest
|Responsible ADB Department
|Responsible ADB Division
|Water and Urban Development Sector Office (SG-WUD)
|Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs
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